\tFriends who are familiar with electronic devices know that FPGA is an integrated circuit that contains many (64 to more than 10,000) of the same logic units, which can be regarded as standard components. Each logic unit can independently assume any one of a limited set of personalities. The individual units are interconnected by a wire matrix and programmable switches.Circuit board\tThe user's design is realized by specifying simple logic functions for each unit and selectively closing the switches in the interconnect matrix, and complex designs are created by combining these basic modules to create the required circuits. Field programmable means FPGA The function defined by the user's program depends on the specific conditions of the device. The program will be permanently or semi-permanently "burned" during the circuit board assembly process, or loaded from an external memory every time it is turned on.\tConfigurable elements\tFPGA has three main configurable elements: configurable logic block (CLB), input\/output blocks, and interconnect. CLB provides functional elements for building user logic.\tIOB provides an interface between package pins and internal signal lines. Programmable interconnect resources provide routing paths to connect the inputs and outputs of CLB and IOB to appropriate networks. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) provides the advantages of custom CMOS VLSI while avoiding the initial cost, time delay, and inherent risks of traditional mask gate arrays. Customize the FPGA by loading the configuration data into the internal storage unit. Complex programmable logic devices (CPLD) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) have become a key part of every system design. There are many different FPGAs with different architectures\/processes.\tFPGA classification\tAccording to Jotrin, a global electronic component distributor, there are four main types of FPGAs available on the market: symmetric arrays, line-based, layered PLDs, and gates. In all these FPGAs, the interconnections and their programming methods are different.\tFour technologies\tThere are currently four technologies in use. They are static RAM cell, anti-fuse, EPROM transistor, and EEPROM transistor. Depending on the application, an FPGA technology may have the functions required for that application.\t1. Static RAM technology\tIn static RAM, FPGA programmable connections are made using multiplexers controlled by transistors, transmission gates, or SRAM cells. This technology allows for fast online reconfiguration. The main disadvantages are the chip size required by RAM technology and the need to load the chip configuration onto the chip from an external source (usually an external non-volatile memory chip). FPGA can actively read its configuration data from external serial or byte parallel PROM (master mode), or write configuration data to FPGA (slave mode and peripheral mode). FPGA can be programmed an unlimited number of times.\t2. Anti-fuse technology\tThe anti-fuse is in a high impedance state. And can be set to low impedance or "melted" state. This technology can be used to write devices that are cheaper than RAM technology.\t3. EPROM technology\tThis method is the same as that used in EPROM memory. No external configuration storage is required to store programming. EPROM-based programmable chips cannot be reprogrammed online and need to be cleared by UV erasure.\t4. EEPROM technology\tThis method is the same as that used in EEPROM memory. No external configuration storage is required to store programming. Programmable chips based on EEPROM can be erased electrically, but usually cannot be reprogrammed online.\tFeatures of FPGA\tMany emerging applications in the communications, computing, and consumer electronics industries require that systems remain functionally flexible after they are manufactured. To cope with changing user needs, system function improvements, changing protocols and data coding standards, and supporting various user application requirements, this flexibility is needed.\tFPGAs have a large number of such units and can be used as building blocks in complex digital circuits. The custom hardware has never been easier to develop. Like a microprocessor, a RAM-based FPGA can be infinitely reprogrammed in a circuit within a fraction of a second. Even design revisions can be made for on-site products and can be implemented quickly and easily. The use of reconfiguration can also reduce hardware.\tAlthough reconfigurable FPGA technology has been used commercially for more than a decade, the number of available tools that can support the design of reconfigurable systems is still very limited. Many of these existing tools are based on a conventional static FPGA design flow and require expert skills and improvisation to produce a working reconfigurable system.\tIn theory, FPGA combines the speed of dedicated, application-optimized hardware and the ability to flexibly change chip resource allocation, so the same system can run many applications optimized for each application.\tBut historically, FPGAs have been difficult to program, making it difficult to take advantage of these advantages. The number of available tools that can support the design of reconfigurable systems is still very limited. By the way, if you need related electronic components, you can find them on Jotrin's official website. 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